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Weekly Local weather and Power Information Roundup #416

Quote of the Week:“No quantity of experimentation can ever end up me proper; a unmarried experiment can end up me improper.” – Albert Einstein [H/t H. Sterling Burnett]

Selection of the Week: From 55% to 34% with out a substitute in gross quantity.

THIS WEEK:

By way of Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Coverage Mission (SEPP)

July Abstract: Mentioned within the earlier 3 TWTWs, Richard Lindzen’s paper, “An oversimplified image of the weather conduct in response to a unmarried procedure may end up in distorted conclusions,” contained not anything new, however supplied a very good foundation for working out what we all know with cheap simple task, what we suspect, and what we all know is improper about weather substitute, the greenhouse impact, temperature traits, weather modeling, ocean chemistry, and sea point upward push. Describing this data, or lack thereof, will almost certainly take two or 3 installments to finish in TWTW, however it can be a precious reference someday that may be changed as wanted.

The tenet is expressed by means of Einstein within the citation above and amplified by means of Feynman in his lectures. Check hypotheses opposed to all related bodily information, experimental and observational. If the speculation is improper, its improper. However you can not end up it proper.

Sadly, scientists in quite a few organizations, such because the Union of Involved Scientists, confuse speculation checking out with cherry selecting – the choice of information that helps the speculation, ignoring the remainder. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Alternate and its fans use this faulty process by means of ignoring 40 years of atmospheric temperature traits which display that no matter greenhouse gasoline warming is going on isn’t bad.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has many jobs in lifestyles on the earth. It is necessary that any executive coverage in curbing human emissions of CO2 be in response to complete reputation of those roles and their relative significance. Those roles come with photosynthesis and the greenhouse impact. Each can affect weather. TWTW will try to talk about those roles as objectively as imaginable.

As mentioned within the June 27 TWTW, Lindzen wrote:

“The ‘consensus’ review of the program is lately the next:

“On this complicated multifactor gadget, the weather (which, itself, is composed in lots of variables – particularly the temperature distinction between the equator and the poles) is described by means of only one variable, the worldwide averaged temperature substitute, and is managed by means of the 1—2% perturbation [deviation] within the calories funds because of a unmarried variable (any unmarried variable) amongst many variables of similar significance. We move additional and designate CO2 as the only keep an eye on. Even though we don’t seem to be certain of the funds for this variable, we all know exactly what insurance policies to put in force with the intention to keep an eye on it.

“How did this sort of naïve seeming image come to be approved, no longer simply by the proponents of the problem, but in addition by means of maximum skeptics?” To which the paper provides: “Finally, we spend a lot of our effort arguing about international temperature information, weather sensitivity, and so forth. Briefly, we’re guided by means of this line of concept.”

Lindzen thinks the that specialize in CO2 isn’t productive in addressing weather substitute and must be corrected. He evaluations what’s usually approved concerning the weather gadget declaring [edited from the original with direct quotations in italics]:

  1. The core of the gadget is composed in two turbulent fluids (the ambience and oceans) interacting with every different.
  • The 2 fluids are on a rotating planet this is differentially [unevenly] heated by means of the solar and inconsistently soaking up the sun warming. Sun rays without delay hit the equator and read the earth on the poles leading to asymmetric heating, which drives the flow of the ambience. The result’s warmth delivery from the equator in opposition to the poles (meridional).
  • The earth’s weather gadget is rarely in equilibrium. [Boldface added]
  • Along with the oceans, the ambience is interacting with a massively abnormal land floor distorting the airflow, inflicting planetary scale waves, that are usually no longer as it should be described in weather fashions.
  •  A very important element of the ambience is water in its liquid, cast, and vapor stages, and the adjustments in stages have immense dynamic penalties. Each and every segment impacts incoming and outgoing radiation in a different way. Really extensive warmth is launched when water vapor condenses, riding thunder clouds. Additional, clouds include water within the type of superb droplets and ice crystals. Generally, those are suspended by means of emerging air currents, but if those develop sufficiently big, they fall as rain and snow. The energies excited by segment adjustments are essential, in addition to the truth that each water vapor and clouds strongly impact radiation.

“The 2 maximum essential greenhouse elements by means of a long way are water vapor and clouds. Clouds also are essential reflectors of daylight. Those issues are mentioned intimately within the IPCC WG1 experiences, every of which brazenly recognize clouds as primary assets of uncertainty in weather modeling.” [Boldface added] [However, the IPCC Summaries to Policymakers largely ignore these uncertainties.]

  • “The calories funds of the program comes to the absorption and reemission of about 240 W/m2 [Watts per square meter]. Doubling CO2 comes to a perturbation [deviation] a bit of not up to 2% to this funds (Four W/m2) So do adjustments in clouds and different options, and such adjustments are not unusual. The earth receives about 340 W/m2 from the solar, however about 100 W/m2 is just mirrored again to area by means of each the earth’s floor and, extra importantly, by means of clouds. This would go away about 240 W/m2 that the earth must emit with the intention to determine steadiness. The solar radiates within the visual portion of the radiation spectrum as a result of its temperature is ready 6000 Ok. If the Earth had no environment in any respect (however for functions of argument nonetheless turned into reflecting 100 W/m2), it must radiate at a temperature of about 255 Ok, and, at this temperature, the radiation is most commonly within the infrared.”

The oceans and the ambience introduce a number of headaches together with evaporation growing water vapor which strongly absorbs and emits radiation within the infrared.

“The water vapor necessarily blocks infrared radiation from leaving the skin, inflicting the skin and (by means of conduction) the air adjoining to the skin to warmth, and convection units in. The mix of the radiative and the convective processes ends up in reducing temperature with peak [lapse rate]. To make issues extra sophisticated, the quantity of water vapor that the air can grasp decreases abruptly because the temperature decreases. Above some peak there’s so little water vapor last that radiation from this point can now get away to area. It’s at this increased point (round Five km) that the temperature will have to be about 255 Ok with the intention to steadiness incoming radiation. Then again, since the temperature decreases with peak, the skin of the Earth now has to in truth be hotter than 255 Ok. It seems that it must be about 288 Ok (which is certainly the typical temperature of the earth’s floor). The addition of different greenhouse gases (like CO2) will increase additional the emission point and reasons an extra build up of the bottom temperature. Doubling CO2 is estimated to be similar to a forcing of about 4W/m2 which is rather less than 2% of the online incoming 240 W/m2.

“The placement can in truth be extra sophisticated if upper-level cirrus clouds are provide. They’re very robust absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation and successfully block infrared radiation from underneath. Thus, when such clouds are provide above about Five km, their tops, fairly than Five km resolve the emission point. This makes the bottom temperature (i.e., the greenhouse impact) dependent at the cloud protection.

Many components, together with fluctuations of moderate cloud space and peak, snow duvet, ocean circulations, and so forth. repeatedly reason adjustments to the radiative funds similar to that of doubling of CO2. For instance, the online international imply cloud radiative impact is of the order of − 20 W/m2 (cooling impact). A Four W/m2 forcing, from a doubling of CO2, due to this fact corresponds to just a 20% substitute within the web cloud impact. [Boldface added]

  • You will need to word that this sort of gadget will vary with timescales starting from seconds to millennia even within the absence of specific forcing as opposed to a gentle solar. A lot of the preferred literature (on either side of the weather debate) assumes that every one adjustments will have to be pushed by means of some exterior issue.

Although the sun forcing had been consistent, the weather would range. With the large dimension of the oceans, such permutations can contain timescales of millennia. Lindzen mentions the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which has a moderately brief cycle, however for which we wouldn’t have a sufficiently lengthy instrumental checklist to grasp. The earth has different pure adjustments or oscillations that don’t seem to be totally understood. The sun sunspot cycle lasts about 11 years, imperfectly.

“Limiting ourselves to issues which might be utterly uncontroversial does imply that the above description isn’t fully whole, however it does display the heterogeneity, the a lot of levels of freedom, and the a lot of assets of variability of the weather gadget.”

After this overview of the complexity of the weather gadget, Lindzen follows with the simplistic “consensus” review mentioned above.

You will need to word that the large complexity mentioned above would possibly take one thousand years to discover. Additional, those complexities which might be inside to the earth don’t come with the complexities added by means of a converting solar, orbital adjustments of the Milankovitch cycles taking hundreds of years, and converting depth of high-energy cosmic rays hitting the globe because the sun gadget strikes during the galaxy as steered by means of the Svensmark Speculation, taking hundreds of thousands of years.

The following TWTW will proceed with a abstract of what we all know with cheap simple task about including CO2 to the ambience. See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy (Lindzen’s article no longer paywalled) and Article # 2 on previous 20th century medical ideals about Mars.

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Do Now not Exaggerate: Writing in Grasp Useful resource, Robert Bradley brings up a 2009 article by means of Andrew Revkin, then a New York Instances journalist. Regardless that he didn’t believe Revkin’s perspectives about weather substitute, Fred Singer, the overdue SEPP Chairman, revered Revkin. Bradley’s essay demonstrates why. Because the identify of the item states: “In Local weather Debate, Exaggeration Is a Pitfall.”

Sadly, a long way too many writers and scientists have didn’t heed this recommendation. The result’s ignoring different perspectives regardless of how smartly based they is also. See hyperlinks beneath Speaking Higher to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Imprecise?

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Surroundings Out To Mislead: One of the most extra worrying false claims of CO2 alarmists is that human CO2 emissions are making the oceans acidic. As mentioned within the June 13 TWTW, Jim Steele wrote that the time period turned into intentionally selected by means of Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Establishment for Science to surprise the general public, to magnify the affect of carbon dioxide. Calderia turned into a lead creator of the 5th Evaluate Document of the IPCC (AR5, 2013 & 2014).

On July Nine, the Norwegian Institute for Water Analysis issued a information launch declaring:

“’Our be taught highlights the pressing want for interdisciplinary, cross-sector analysis to grasp and get ready for demanding situations linking ocean acidification with [human] social building beneath weather substitute…”

In step with Phys.org which carries many articles on so-called ocean acidification:

Ocean acidification is the title given to the continuing lower within the pH of the Earth’s oceans, prompted by means of their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the ambience. Between 1751 and 1994 floor ocean pH is estimated to have reduced from roughly Eight.179 to eight.104 (a metamorphosis of -Zero.075).

This modification is a modest lower in alkalinity, no longer acidification.

The level of the planned effort to lie to is obvious when one realizes that the concept that of pH turned into first proposed by means of a Danish chemist Søren Sørensen in 1909 and turned into revised in 1924. But, lately organizations claiming to be medical are claiming that ocean-wide pH is understood to an accuracy of ± Zero.Zero01 as early as 1751?  Additional, the mentioned substitute of -Zero.075 is not up to what can happen seasonally in spaces with upwelling, such because the coast of the Pacific Northwest.

See hyperlinks beneath Acidic Waters, https://phys.org/tags/ocean+acidification/ and

https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_Chemistry/Bookpercent3A_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/08%3A_Properties_of_Solutions/Eight.06%3A_The_pH_Concept

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A Just right Proxy? Statistician Steve McIntyre, who with Ross McKitrick broke Mr. Mann’s hockey-stick, has a put up on what is also a nice proxy of temperatures at the Antarctic Peninsula again during the Holocene. This research is essential as a result of it seems that that the IPCC and its fans are seeking to re-create one other hockey-stick to justify the inflated outcomes in their fashions. All this is a part of an effort to “surprise” the general public in hard “motion” on weather substitute, even if CO2 is a bit of participant.

“The LGM [Last Glacial Maximum] (no longer dated right here) could be very chilly. The absolute best values of the sequence are within the Early Holocene (12.Five-10 ka BP). Values from ~9000 BP to 3000 BP fluctuated inside a moderately slim vary earlier than declining within the overdue Holocene (after ~4000 BP). The bottom values had been reached about 500 BP, roughly recent with the NH Little Ice Age [LIA]. Values within the 20th century had been larger than within the LIA however are nonetheless not up to values thru many of the Holocene and significantly not up to the highs within the Early Holocene.”

Conclusion

To the level that proxies and proxy reconstructions have broader importance within the weather debate, their pastime in large part arises from the unprecedentedness (or lack thereof) of overdue 20th century/early 21st century information relative to the previous.  When IPCC turned into based, as a lot pastime hooked up to the comparability of the fashionable heat duration to the “Holocene Optimal” (or “Holocene Thermal Most”) as to the corresponding comparability to the medieval heat duration.  Within the 1990s and, particularly because the IPCC 3rd Evaluate (2001) promoted the Mann hockey stick, way more consideration has been paid to the medieval comparability, however there’s expanding pastime within the longer Holocene standpoint (Marcott et al 2013; Kaufman 12Ok (2020).”

Apparently there shall be one other effort by means of the UN IPCC to create false impressions, for sure falsely claiming it might “treatment” the issue with $100 billion once a year into its Inexperienced Local weather Fund. See hyperlinks beneath Converting Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

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New Human Fingerprint: In step with a piece of writing in Carbon Transient, a brand new human fingerprint on weather has been came upon. The UN IPCC’s outdated one has vanished. In step with the summary of the be taught revealed in Nature Local weather Alternate:

“The second one fingerprint, FM2(x), captures a pronounced interhemispheric temperature distinction related meridional shifts within the intertropical convergence zone and correlated anomalies in precipitation and aridity over California the Sahel and India.”

The intertropical convergence zone has been transferring since lengthy earlier than humanity existed, a lot much less when humanity began the usage of fossil fuels. The query is why it shifts?  The 2008 NIPCC file signifies it can be because of the affect of cosmic rays on clouds, as in keeping with the Svensmark Speculation. See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy – NIPCC and Converting Local weather.

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Vote for Aprils Fools Award: The balloting for the SEPP’s April Fools Award shall be endured till July 31. Because of adjustments in schedules, there aren’t any meetings held earlier than then to announce the effects. So, get your votes in now.

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Selection of the Week: From 55% to 34% with out a substitute in gross quantity. Brought about by means of a put up by means of Paul Homewood, TWTW tested the substitute in CO2 emissions because the Rio Earth Summit the place the UN Framework Conference on Local weather Alternate (UNFCCC) turned into signed in 1992.

In step with the World Power Company (IEA), in 1992 Complex economies (EU, US, & Japan) accounted for 11.three Gigatons (Gt) of CO2 emissions, 55% of overall world-wide emissions, whilst the Remainder of the International accounted for Nine.three Gt., 45% of overall emissions. In 2019, Complex economies accounted for 11.three Gigatons, no substitute, however best 34% of the full. The Remainder of the International accounted for 22 Gigatons, 66% of the full. Western politicians and reporters who insist the West will have to do extra are ignorant about CO2 emissions.

Climategate Persisted

Re-Visiting the Local weather Sell off

By way of David Solway, The Pipeline, July 10, 2020 [H/t Climate Depot]

Censorship

Again To The Darkish Ages: British Universities Undertake Communist Censorship Regulations

By way of Personnel, The Instances, By means of GWPF, July 10, 2020

Local weather Concept Police Are On the Door

By way of Robert Bradley Jr. Grasp Useful resource, July 6, 2020

“This put up simply reproduces the open letter from weather alarmists to Fb. This motion, be confident, is a starting, no longer the top. Be expecting extra censorship along heavy-handed executive intervention within the Malthusian’s remaining stand.”

The following tradition warfare shall be over weather substitute

By way of Ross Clark, The Spectator, July Four, 2020

https://www.spectator.co.united kingdom/article/the-next-culture-war-will-be-about-climate-change

Anti-Fossil Lobbyists Force Fb to Ban Opposing Science

By way of Larry Bell, Newsmax, July 10, 2020

https://www.newsmax.com/larrybell/youtube-google-facebook-twitter/2020/07/10/identity/976622/

Fb Accused of Permitting Local weather Deniers to Advertise Their Perspectives

By way of Eric Worrall, WUWT, July Eight, 2020

[SEPP Comment: Includes letter to Facebook Oversight Board.]

Suppressing Clinical Inquiry

Local weather Activists Step Up Requires Imprisoning Local weather Realists

By way of Anthony Watts, Local weather Realism, July 7, 2020

[SEPP Comment: Imprison all those who don’t believe in science fiction!]

Difficult the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

Local weather Alternate Reconsidered II: Bodily Science

Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental World Panel on Local weather Alternate (NIPCC), 2013

https://www.heartland.org/media-library/pdfs/CCR-II/CCR-II-Complete.pdf

Abstract: https://www.heartland.org/_template-assets/paperwork/CCR/CCR-II/Abstract-for-Policymakers.pdf

Local weather Alternate Reconsidered II: Organic Affects

Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental World Panel on Local weather Alternate (NIPCC), 2014

Abstract: https://www.heartland.org/media-library/pdfs/CCR-IIb/Abstract-for-Policymakers.pdf

Local weather Alternate Reconsidered II: Fossil Fuels

By way of More than one Authors, Bezdek, Idso, Legates, and Singer eds., Nongovernmental World Panel on Local weather Alternate, April 2019

Obtain with out a rate:

http://climatechangereconsidered.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Local weather-Alternate-Reconsidered-II-Fossil-Fuels-FULL-Quantity-with-covers.pdf

Why Scientists Disagree About World Warming

The NIPCC Document at the Clinical Consensus

By way of Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, Nongovernmental World Panel on Local weather Alternate (NIPCC), Nov 23, 2015

Obtain with out a rate:

https://www.heartland.org/policy-documents/why-scientists-disagree-about-global-warming

Nature, Now not Human Process, Regulations the Local weather

S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008

http://www.sepp.org/publications/nipcc_final.pdf

World Sea-Degree Upward thrust: An Analysis of the Knowledge

By way of Craig D. Idso, David Legates, and S. Fred Singer, Heartland Coverage Transient, Might 20, 2019

https://www.heartland.org/_template-assets/paperwork/publications/SeaLevelRiseCCRII.pdf

Difficult the Orthodoxy

An oversimplified image of the weather conduct in response to a unmarried procedure may end up in distorted conclusions

By way of Richard S. Lindzen, The Eu Bodily Magazine Plus, June three, 2020

document:///C:/Customers/Proprietor/AppData/Native/Microsoft/Home windows/INetCache/Content material.Outlook/D7A9Y43M/Lindzen-2020-The_European_Physical_Journal_Plus%20(Zero03).pdf

“Five Years To Local weather Breakdown”: How To Generate Laptop Style Scares

By way of David Whitehouse, GWPF, July 10, 2020

“In all probability they may begin to be guided by means of the empirical information and the messages it’s been sending us for years; we don’t perceive pure climatic variability; our fashions are nowhere close to as correct as some handle and forecasts of destiny temperatures extra continuously than no longer lead to ignominy.”

Local weather alarmism As opposed to the Clinical Approach

By way of H. Sterling Burnett, The Heartland Institute, July Nine, 2020

https://www.heartland.org/news-opinion/information/climate-alarmism-versus-the-scientific-method

Carbon dioxide point extraordinary in 15 MY… Extra proof it’s no longer the weather keep an eye on knob!

By way of David Middleton, WUWT, July 10, 2020

E book Assessment: False Alarm by means of Bjørn Lomborg

By way of David Kreutzer, Institute for Power Analysis, July 7, 2020 [H/t Cooler Heads]

‘Die Zeit’ Slams Science Dogmatism, The ‘Fable Of General Controllability’…’Relapse Into Pre-Enlightenment’

By way of P Gosselin, No Methods Zone, July Four, 2020

“A German weekly ‘Die Zeit’ remark criticizes the hostility directed at skeptical climatologists and epidemiologists.

“’The place will we finally end up if a scientist’s level of alarm turns into a litmus take a look at for his medical respectability?’ Science activism represents ‘relapse into pre-enlightened considering’.”

Deniers’ of the International, Unite!

By way of Clarice Feldman, The Pipeline, July Eight, 2020 [H/t WUWT]

Protecting the Orthodoxy

WMO: International May Hit 1.5C World Warming by means of 2024

By way of Eric Worrall, WUWT, July Nine, 2020

Hyperlink to announcement: New weather predictions assess international temperatures in coming 5 years

The once a year imply international temperature might be a minimum of 1° Celsius above pre-industrial stages (1850-1900) in every of the approaching 5 years (2020-2024) and there’s a 20% probability that it’s going to exceed 1.Five°C in a minimum of 12 months, consistent with new weather predictions issued by means of the International Meteorological Group (WMO).

By way of Personnel, WMO, July Nine, 2020

https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/new-climate-predictions-assess-global-temperatures-coming-five-years

Hyperlink to modeling facilities: The Lead Centre for Annual-to-Decadal Local weather Prediction collects and offers hindcasts, forecasts and verification information from quite a few contributing centres international.

By way of Personnel, Lead Centre for Annual-to-Decadal Local weather Prediction, Accessed July 10, 2020

https://hadleyserver.metoffice.gov.united kingdom/wmolc/

Hyperlink to pdf: World Annual to Decadal Local weather Replace

Goal years: 2020 and 2020-2024

By way of Personnel, WMO, Accessed July 10, 2020

https://hadleyserver.metoffice.gov.united kingdom/wmolc/WMO_GADCU_2019.pdf

“It’s not going (~20% probability) that one of the vital subsequent Five years shall be a minimum of 1.Five°C hotter than preindustrial stages, however the probability is expanding with time.”

[SEPP Comment: No centers in Africa & South America. NCAR, GFDL & NRL are identified as US centers.]]

By way of 2025, carbon dioxide stages in Earth’s environment shall be larger than at any time within the remaining three.three million years

Information Unencumber by means of College of Southampton, July 10, 2020 [H/t Bernie Kepshire]

https://phys.org/information/2020-07-carbon-dioxide-earth-atmosphere-higher.html

Hyperlink to paper: Atmospheric CO2 throughout the Mid-Piacenzian Heat Length and the M2 glaciation

By way of Elwyn de los angeles Vega, et al. Clinical Experiences, July Nine, 2020

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-Zero20-67154-Eight

Opening remark of stories launch: “By way of 2025, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) stages will very probably be larger than they had been throughout the warmest duration of the remaining three.three million years,…”

[SEPP Comment: The early part of the Holocene was warmer than today, which is ignored in the news release. In discussing research of zooplankton, the news release states: “The isotopic composition of the boron in their shells is dependent on the acidity (the pH) of the seawater in which the forams lived.” Questionable! The oceans are alkaline, with exceptions over volcanic vents! The paper failed to identify the exact pH and there is no reason to assume it was below 7, making it acidic.]

CO2 in Earth’s environment nearing stages of 15m years in the past

Remaining time CO2 turned into at an identical point temperatures had been 3C to 4C warmer and sea stages had been 20 metres larger

By way of Jonathan Watts, The Dad or mum, July Nine, 2020 [H/t Bernie Kepshire]

https://www.theguardian.com/surroundings/2020/jul/09/co2-in-earths-atmosphere-nearing-levels-of-15m-years-ago

Hyperlink to paper: Atmospheric CO2 throughout the Mid-Piacenzian Heat Length and the M2 glaciation

By way of Elwyn de los angeles Vega, et al., Nature, Science, July Nine, 2020

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-Zero20-67154-Eight

[SEPP Comment: See essay by Middleton, under Challenging the Orthodoxy.]

Coronavirus: Monitoring how the sector’s ‘inexperienced restoration’ plans purpose to chop emissions

By way of More than one Authors, Carbon Transient, June 16, 2020

Managing expectancies: weather motion no longer a snappy repair

By way of Marlowe Hood, Paris (AFP), July Eight, 2020

https://www.terradaily.com/experiences/Managing_expectations_climate_action_not_a_quick_fix_999.html

No hyperlink to paper, not able to search out paper looking for lead creator’s title in Nature Communications

Wondering the Orthodoxy

No Want To Panic: Main Scientists See Little World Warming In The Works – Due To “Herbal Variability”

By way of P Gosselin, No Methods Zone, July Five, 2020

A Historian Seems at Local weather Alternate

By way of John Robson, Local weather Dialogue Nexus, July 7, 2020

Video

10 fallacies about Arctic sea ice & polar endure survival refute deceptive ‘details’

By way of Susan Crockford, Polar Undergo Science, July Eight, 2020

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